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Tuesday, June 20, 2017



Taxonomy - the science of classifying organisms
Common Names
spider monkey
sea monkey
sea horse
gray wolf
Firefly
Crayfish
mud puppy
horned toad
Ringworm
black bear
Jellyfish

*Common names can be confusing and names can vary by region.
Why Classify?
About 1.5 million species named
2-100 million species yet to be discovered
Taxonomy =science of classifying organisms
--groups similar organisms together
--assigns each a name

Naming Organisms:
Organisms have common & scientific name -all organisms have only 1 scientific name
-usually Latin or Greek
-developed by Carolus Linnaeus
The scientific name is always italicized or underlined. Genus is capitalized. Species is not. Scientific names can be abbreviated by using the capital letter of the genus and a period: Example.P. leo (lion)

Members of the same genus are closely related. 
Only members of the same species can interbreed (under natural conditions)
Some hybrids do occur under unnatural conditions:
 Ligers are crosses between tigers and lions.
This two-word naming system is called 
Binomial Nomenclature
-written in italics (or underlined)
-1st word is Capitalized --Genus
-2nd word is lowercase ---species
Examples: Felis concolor, Ursus arctos, Homo sapiens,Panthera leo , Panthera tigris 

Linneaus - devised the current system of classification, which uses the following schema
Kingdom
Phylum/Division
Class
Order
Family
Genus
Species

Human
Cougar
Tiger
Pintail Duck
Kingdom
Animalia
Animalia
Animalia
Animalia
Phylum/Division
Chordata
Chordata
Chordata
Chordata
Class
Mammalia
Mammalia
Mammalia
Aves
Order
Primate
Carnivora
Carnivora
Anseriformes
Family
Homindae
Felidae
Felidae
Anatidae
Genus
Homo
Felis
Panthera
Anas
Species
sapiens
concolor
tigris
Acuta
18-2 Modern Evolutionary Classification
  • Linnaeus grouped species mainly on visible similarities & differences
  • Today, taxonomists group organisms into categories that represent lines of evolutionary descent (phylogeny)
  • Evolutionary relationships among a group of organisms can be shown on a cladogram 
Similarities in DNA and RNA
  • DNA & RNA is similar across all life forms
  • Genes of many organisms show important similarities at the molecular level
  • DNA shows evolutionary relationships & helps classify organisms

The Six Kingdoms and Domains
number of Cells
Energy
cell type
Examples
archaebacteria
Unicellular
some autotrophic, most chemotrophic
Prokaryote
"extremophiles"
Eubacteria
Unicellular
autotrophic and heterotrophic
Prokaryote
bacteria, E. coli
Fungae
most multicellular
Heterotrophic
Eukaryote
mushrooms, yeast
Plantae
Multicellular
Autotrophic
Eukaryote
trees, grass
Animalia
Multicellular
Heterotrophic
Eukaryote
humans, insects, worms
Protista
most unicellular
heterotrophic or autotrophic
Eukaryote
ameba, paramecium, algae

Using Dichotomous Keys
A dichotomous key is a written set of choices that leads to the name of an organism. Scientists use these to identify unknown organisms.
Consider the following animals. They are all related, but each is a separate species. Use the dichotomous key below to determine the species of each.



1.
Has green colored body ......go to 2
Has purple colored body ..... go to 4
2.
Has 4 legs .....go to 3
Has 8 legs .......... Deerus octagis
3.
Has a tail ........ Deerus pestis
Does not have a tail ..... Deerus magnus
4.
Has a pointy hump ...... Deerus humpis
Does not have a pointy hump.....go to 5
5.
Has ears .........Deerus purplinis

Does not have ears ......Deerus deafus




Friday, June 16, 2017

Chapter 9/10 Online Exploration



a. What is the difference between a producer and a consumer?
b. Give three examples of each: herbivore, carnivore, and omnivore.
c. What are decomposers?  What would the environment look like if we had no decomposers?


Copy the NORTHERN Food Chain and the FOREST Food Chain into your notebooks and answer the following questions: a. What happens if you take the frog out of the FOREST Food Chain?
                                       b. What happens if you take the fish out of the NORTHERN Food Chain?


a. Draw a picture of "photosynthesis."


a. What does a food chain show?
b. What is the purpose of an arrow in the food chain?
c. Green plants are called _________ because they make their own ____.
d. Give three examples of a consumer.
e. If most food chains begin with green plants, where do they get their energy from?
f. What makes the bird both a predator and prey at the same time?

Sunday, May 28, 2017

LAB #11 – Using a Microscope


LAB #11 – Using a Microscope

microscope is an instrument used to see objects too small for the naked eye. The science of investigating small objects using such an instrument is called microscopyMicroscopic means invisible to the eye unless aided by a microscope.  There are many types of microscopes, the most common and first to be invented is the optical microscope which uses light to image the sample.

      Problem

      How can we tell the difference between salt and sugar?

Hypothesis




Materials
Microscope
Salt
Sugar
Celery leaves
Various slides


Procedure

1.             Make observations of salt and sugar at different degrees of magnification. 
2.             Make observations of celery leaves at different degrees of magnification.
3.                                 Make observations of various slides at different degrees of magnification.

Results


Observations with no magnification

Salt
 Compare/contrast
Sugar





Observations at 40X magnification

Salt

Sugar





Observations at 100X magnification

Salt

Sugar





Observations with no magnification

Celery leaves
 Human hair
fingernail





Observations of various objects with 40X magnification


Celery leaves
Human hair
fingernail







Observations of various objects at 40 X magnification


Various slides
Various slides
Various slides








Observations of various objects at 100X magnification


Various slides
Various slides
Various slides









Observations of various objects at 100X magnification


Various slides
Various slides
Various slides








Analysis

1.         How did the microscope assist you in visualizing the various objects?

2.         Why does the microscope stage have a hole in it?

3.         Which parts of the microscope enlarge the image of the specimen?

4.         If the specimen appears blurry, what should you do first?

5.         Describe the correct way to carry a microscope.

6.         If you are looking at a slide with the objective lens on the 10X, what is the total magnification of the specimen?

Conclusion














1. Label the following parts of the microscope:
1.          Eyepiece lens
2.          Coarse Focus
3.          Fine Focus
4.          Objective lens
5.          Arm
6.          Stage
7.          Base