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Wednesday, June 20, 2018



Taxonomy - the science of classifying organisms
Common Names
spider monkey
sea monkey
sea horse
gray wolf
Firefly
Crayfish
mud puppy
horned toad
Ringworm
black bear
Jellyfish

*Common names can be confusing and names can vary by region.
Why Classify?
About 1.5 million species named
2-100 million species yet to be discovered
Taxonomy =science of classifying organisms
--groups similar organisms together
--assigns each a name

Naming Organisms:
Organisms have common & scientific name -all organisms have only 1 scientific name
-usually Latin or Greek
-developed by Carolus Linnaeus
The scientific name is always italicized or underlined. Genus is capitalized. Species is not. Scientific names can be abbreviated by using the capital letter of the genus and a period: Example.P. leo (lion)

Members of the same genus are closely related. 
Only members of the same species can interbreed (under natural conditions)
Some hybrids do occur under unnatural conditions:
 Ligers are crosses between tigers and lions.
This two-word naming system is called 
Binomial Nomenclature
-written in italics (or underlined)
-1st word is Capitalized --Genus
-2nd word is lowercase ---species
Examples: Felis concolor, Ursus arctos, Homo sapiens,Panthera leo , Panthera tigris 

Linneaus - devised the current system of classification, which uses the following schema
Kingdom
Phylum/Division
Class
Order
Family
Genus
Species

Human
Cougar
Tiger
Pintail Duck
Kingdom
Animalia
Animalia
Animalia
Animalia
Phylum/Division
Chordata
Chordata
Chordata
Chordata
Class
Mammalia
Mammalia
Mammalia
Aves
Order
Primate
Carnivora
Carnivora
Anseriformes
Family
Homindae
Felidae
Felidae
Anatidae
Genus
Homo
Felis
Panthera
Anas
Species
sapiens
concolor
tigris
Acuta
18-2 Modern Evolutionary Classification
  • Linnaeus grouped species mainly on visible similarities & differences
  • Today, taxonomists group organisms into categories that represent lines of evolutionary descent (phylogeny)
  • Evolutionary relationships among a group of organisms can be shown on a cladogram 
Similarities in DNA and RNA
  • DNA & RNA is similar across all life forms
  • Genes of many organisms show important similarities at the molecular level
  • DNA shows evolutionary relationships & helps classify organisms

The Six Kingdoms and Domains
number of Cells
Energy
cell type
Examples
archaebacteria
Unicellular
some autotrophic, most chemotrophic
Prokaryote
"extremophiles"
Eubacteria
Unicellular
autotrophic and heterotrophic
Prokaryote
bacteria, E. coli
Fungae
most multicellular
Heterotrophic
Eukaryote
mushrooms, yeast
Plantae
Multicellular
Autotrophic
Eukaryote
trees, grass
Animalia
Multicellular
Heterotrophic
Eukaryote
humans, insects, worms
Protista
most unicellular
heterotrophic or autotrophic
Eukaryote
ameba, paramecium, algae

Using Dichotomous Keys
A dichotomous key is a written set of choices that leads to the name of an organism. Scientists use these to identify unknown organisms.
Consider the following animals. They are all related, but each is a separate species. Use the dichotomous key below to determine the species of each.



1.
Has green colored body ......go to 2
Has purple colored body ..... go to 4
2.
Has 4 legs .....go to 3
Has 8 legs .......... Deerus octagis
3.
Has a tail ........ Deerus pestis
Does not have a tail ..... Deerus magnus
4.
Has a pointy hump ...... Deerus humpis
Does not have a pointy hump.....go to 5
5.
Has ears .........Deerus purplinis

Does not have ears ......Deerus deafus




Tuesday, June 12, 2018

Chapter 9/10 Online Exploration

a. Play the food chain game: http://www.sheppardsoftware.com/content/animals/kidscorner/games/foodchaingame.htm
b. Draw one of them and label: producer, consumer, herbivore, carnivore, decomposer 


a. What is the difference between a producer and a consumer?
b. Give three examples of each: herbivore, carnivore, and omnivore.
c. What are decomposers?  What would the environment look like if we had no decomposers?


Copy the NORTHERN Food Chain and the FOREST Food Chain into your notebooks and answer the following questions: a. What happens if you take the frog out of the FOREST Food Chain?
                                       b. What happens if you take the fish out of the NORTHERN Food Chain?


a. Draw a picture of "photosynthesis."


a. What does a food chain show?
b. What is the purpose of an arrow in the food chain?
c. Green plants are called _________ because they make their own ____.
d. Give three examples of a consumer.
e. If most food chains begin with green plants, where do they get their energy from?
f. What makes the bird both a predator and prey at the same time?

BIOME Ecotourism Advertisement

BIOME Ecotourism Advertisement

Biomes are the major regional groupings of plants and animals discernible at a global scale. The biome concept embraces the idea of community, of interaction among vegetation, animal populations, and soil. A biome (also called a biotic area) may be defined as a major region of distinctive plant and animal groups well adapted to the physical environment of its distribution area.


Assignment:    Some IS 220 Pershing teachers would like to take a trip this summer, as we would like to experience the best that nature has to offer. Your job is to prepare an audio/video travel presentation for your biome, convincing them that YOUR biome is the best one to visit!  Your project should include the following:


1.      Type and Name of your biome [selections for type will be made in class] and Where your biome is located – countries, latitude etc.  You should be able to point out where your biome is located on a globe.

2.    What the climate in your biome is like (average temperature and precipitation for each of its seasons.) Interesting facts about weather/climate in your biome could go here. An example of a climatogram  [also called climatograph] should be included as well.  


3.    The sights or features of your biome a tourist would see. i.e. Tell us about the typical topography of your biome and about the most common plants and animals that characterize your biome; be specific! 

4. Find two endangered species (one plant and one animal) that reside in your biome and discuss them. Why are they endangered? (Habitat destruction? Hunting? Climate change? Other?)

5. a. Be sure to include an example of a food chain/food web found in your biome using the following terms: the sun, producer, consumer, predator, prey, herbivore, omnivore, carnivore and decomposer . 
b. Find/Construct an Energy Pyramid w/ the different trophic levels 

identified and labeled. 


6.    Any characteristics of your biome that make it special or important.  What would I do during the day and night while exploring this biome?  Are there any ecotours or eco adventures possible?  Make sure to include pictures!

7.    Effects that humans have had specifically on your biome, and why they have had such impact.  How is climate change affecting your biome?  Link any relevant articles here. 

8. What is happening currently in this biome?  Your biome is in the news, what's happening?  Make sure and cite your information.

9. Give an example of each of the following vocabulary terms: 

Individual, Population, Community, Ecosystem, Biome, 

Biosphere.



10. What would you want to do here?  Understand, you will visit this biome...  Share pictures of your GOAL!!!  Imagine yourself in this biome!!!   

11. Bibliography – on a separate page or slide[see information at the end]

***Your Biome Travel poster/pamphlet/slide show should include all of the above, and should be crafted so that it is in your own words: [i.e. DO NOT SIMPLY CUT AND PASTE INFORMATION FROM THE INTERNET!!!]***


http://lmgtfy.com/?q=biomes  (search: images)


mrconsidinescience@gmail.com


A. Tundra  
B.  Deserts
C.  Temperate boreal forests/Taiga
D.  Tropical rain forests
E.  Grasslands and savannas
F.    Coral reefs
G.  Coastal wetlands
H.  Freshwater wetlands, rivers, and lakes
I.     Oceans

J.     Islands
K. Deciduous Forest

Friday, June 1, 2018

Chapter 8 - The Study of Living Things and their Interactions in the Environment


Chapter 8 - The Study of Living Things and their Interactions in the Environment

Living things, or organisms, have an incredible amount of diversity.  Unicellular bacteria live in our intestines whereas multicellular blue whales swim in the oceans.  No matter the differences that separate the vast array of organisms, we share some common traits.

1) Living things are organized; the smallest unit of an organism that carries on the functions of life is a cell.

The single celled yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is used in baking bread.


Here is a picture of nearly a dozen Saccharomyces cerevisiae clumping together.  Each one of these is an organism.

The largest living reptile today is the saltwater crocodile.  An adult male can grow to the length of 9.0–5.5 m (13–18 ft) long. 




Crocodylus porosus

The saltwater crocodile is a multicellular organism made up of trillions of cells.


In this image, pig cells connect with each other to form tissue in the pig's nose.


Billions of cells working together are the basic unit of organization that gives form to the multicellular pig.


2) Living things grow and develop
Salmon eggs


Full grown adult salmon with eggs


3) Living things respond to a stimulus


4) Living things maintain homeostasis

Image result for homeostasis gif

5) Living things use energy

6) Living things reproduce




All living things need food, water and shelter

1) Living things need food

2) Living things need water

3) Living things need shelter




Monday, May 28, 2018

LAB #11 – Using a Microscope


LAB #11 – Using a Microscope

microscope is an instrument used to see objects too small for the naked eye. The science of investigating small objects using such an instrument is called microscopyMicroscopic means invisible to the eye unless aided by a microscope.  There are many types of microscopes, the most common and first to be invented is the optical microscope which uses light to image the sample.

      Problem

      How can we tell the difference between salt and sugar?

Hypothesis




Materials
Microscope
Salt
Sugar
Celery leaves
Various slides


Procedure

1.             Make observations of salt and sugar at different degrees of magnification. 
2.             Make observations of celery leaves at different degrees of magnification.
3.                                 Make observations of various slides at different degrees of magnification.

Results


Observations with no magnification

Salt
 Compare/contrast
Sugar





Observations at 40X magnification

Salt

Sugar





Observations at 100X magnification

Salt

Sugar





Observations with no magnification

Celery leaves
 Human hair
fingernail





Observations of various objects with 40X magnification


Celery leaves
Human hair
fingernail











Observations of various objects with 100X magnification


Celery leaves
Human hair
fingernail






Observations of various objects at 40 X magnification


Various slides
Various slides
Various slides








Observations of various objects at 100X magnification


Various slides
Various slides
Various slides









Observations of various objects at 100X magnification


Various slides
Various slides
Various slides








Analysis

1.         How did the microscope assist you in visualizing the various objects?

2.         Why does the microscope stage have a hole in it?

3.         Which parts of the microscope enlarge the image of the specimen?

4.         If the specimen appears blurry, what should you do first?

5.         Describe the correct way to carry a microscope.

6.         If you are looking at a slide with the objective lens on the 10X, what is the total magnification of the specimen?

Conclusion














1. Label the following parts of the microscope:
1.          Eyepiece lens
2.          Coarse Focus
3.          Fine Focus
4.          Objective lens
5.          Arm
6.          Stage
7.          Base