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Friday, April 17, 2015

Chapter 6, 7 Online Exploration of Weather and the Atmosphere



Chapter 6, 7 Online Exploration of Weather 

and the Atmosphere

A. 
1.   Go to www.edheads.org , “Choose An Activity” à “Weather”, click on “Glossary” and copy the following:
a.  Air Pressure – ALL
b.  Barometer – first 3 sentences, read the rest twice
c.   Cloud formation – first 3 sentences, read the rest twice
d.  Conduction and Convection – read 3 times
e.  Fronts – first sentence, read the rest 3 times
f.     Humidity – first sentence and the information on the hygrometer, read the rest
g.  Precipitation – first 2 sentences, read the rest
h.  Radiation and Temperature – read twice
i.      Thermometer – first 2 sentences, read the rest twice
j.      Wind – first sentence, read the rest twice
2.  Report the Weather – 3 Levels (write information in Science Notebook)
3.  Predict the Weather – 3 Levels (write information in Science Notebook)

B. Bill Nye - Atmospheric Pressure

video


1.       A. In the first demonstration, what help up the card against the test tube?
B. How does gravity cause atmospheric pressure?

2.       A. A cloud needs ____ particles in order to form.
B. The air cools because at a ______ altitude the air is ______.

3.       Explain: How is it possible for the man to hang on the cylinder in the air? 

1.       If the surrounding air is pressing down on the kids with ~15 lbs on every inch of their bodies, why aren’t they being crushed?
2.       How is air pressure different at sea level than higher up in the atmosphere?  Draw a picture.
3.       What is going on with the changes in volume with that balloon?
4.       An egg is used as a model for the thickness of the atmosphere, what makes this a good model?
***From 2:00 til the end, there are instructions on how to make a barometer.  Make one of these at home, measure the changes in air pressure, record your results.  TWO WEEK HOMEWORK PASS AWARDED***




D. The Water Cycle

video

1.       What are some benefits of water flowing on the earth?
2.       True/False: Life on earth could continue without the water cycle.
3.       What is meant by the terms “flows” and “stores”?
4.       70% of all the water on earth is found in the ______.
5.       2/3 of all the fresh water on earth is stored in ________.
6.       Precipitation: come up with your own definition.
7.       Compare/Contrast: Stream flow and surface runoff.
8.       How does water make its way into aquifers? 
9.       How does water get back into the atmosphere?  Describe the phase change.
10.   Transpiration: Illustrate this process.
11.   Describe the process of cloud formation, and include the following terms: cloud, condensation, smoke/dirt, cooled.



1.       How do Scientists know so much about the water cycle?

1) Compare and contrast the four different types of precipitation.
2) The “water cycle” is defined as:
3) When water collects on the earth post-precipitation, what are three possible outcomes for a water molecule?
4) If water vapor is invisible, how do we know it’s there?
5) Tell in your own words how sweating and transpiration are similar.
6) Explain the phase transitions in evaporation and condensation.
7) Summarize the water cycle in your own words.

8) “Test yourself” by taking the water cycle quiz.  Put the numbers and your answers in your science notebooks.  What was your final score?


G. Discover more about the water cycle here:

Wednesday, April 15, 2015

4th Quarter HW

1. Text pp. 162-169; vocabulary, blue Q/A, reading check, Physical Setting 2.1a p. 163, Applying Science p. 166, self check #2,3,5,6

2. --Interpreting a weather map--
What does this weather map tell you about our conditions here in NYC?  Can you predict tomorrow's weather?
Explain the following: 1) "H" and "L", 2) patches of green/pink/white, 3) blue lines with triangles, red lines with semi-circles.  Which direction is the weather in the U.S., generally, moving?

Tuesday, March 31, 2015

Weather Journal




US: Current Weather

1) What does this weather map tell you about our conditions here in NYC?  Can you predict tomorrow's weather?
Explain the following: 1) "H" and "L", 2) patches of green/pink/white, 3) blue lines with triangles, red lines with semi-circles.  Which direction is the weather in the U.S., generally, moving?
- Due Date Monday, April 13 -

2) Daily Weather Journal - What is the weather today?
*Written Section*
- Find the high and low temperatures (‘F/’C)
- humidity (%)
- air pressure (barometer)
- precipitation (in/mm)
- cloud cover
- Summarize your experience with the weather today.  The written section should be ½ page.

*Creative Section* 
Be creative, make an illustration of what the weather means to you today and how it affects your daily life.  Illustrate your experience with the weather today.  Use weather symbols, pictures, images, be creative!  This should be ½ page.

Each journal entry should take up a full page in your science notebook. 

Use the following weather symbols to help you with your journals:




For weather information on the web, check out the following websites: 

www.weather.com ("search" 11220 for local weather)
www.weatherbug.com ("search" 11220 for local weather)
www.nytimes.com  (look for NY weather in the top right corner)
http://www.intellicast.com/ ("search" 11220 for local weather)

- Considine

How to Read a Surface Map

Surface maps depict the large-scale elements of the weather. These elements include high and low pressure systems, cold and warm fronts, and precipitation areas. A high pressure system is an area of relative pressure maximum that has diverging winds and a rotation opposite to the earth's rotation. Fair weather is typically associated with high pressure.


A low pressure system is an area of relative pressure minimum that has converging winds and rotates in the same direction as the earth. This is counterclockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere. Stormy weather is often associated with low pressure systems.

A cold front is the leading edge of an advancing cold air mass that is under running and displacing the warmer air in its path. Generally, with the passage of a cold front, the temperature and humidity decrease, the pressure rises, and the wind shifts (usually from the southwest to the northwest in the Northern Hemisphere). Precipitation is generally at and/or behind the front, and with a fast-moving system, a squall line may develop ahead of the front.
A warm front is the leading edge of an advancing warm air mass that is replacing a retreating relatively colder air mass. Generally, with the passage of a warm front, the temperature and humidity increase, the pressure rises, and although the wind shifts (usually from the southwest to the northwest in the Northern Hemisphere), it is not as pronounced as with a cold frontal passage. Precipitation, in the form of rain, snow, or drizzle, is generally found ahead of the surface front, as well as convective showers and thunderstorms. Fog is common in the cold air ahead of the front. Although clearing usually occurs after passage, some conditions may produce fog in the warm air. 

Thursday, March 19, 2015

Ch. 5 - Thermal Energy, Heat, and Temperature Online Exploration

1.      Play the Fahrenheit and Celsius temperature scales game; make a data table and compile a list of the ‘F/’C temperatures with their corresponding icons (pictures) in your notebooks.

-Heat Transfer interactive-
Introduction: Heat always travels from a ______ object to a ______ object.
 1. Conduction
  a. What substances make good conductors?  
  b. What substances make bad conductors (good insulators)?
  c. What is conduction?
  d. The better the conductor the more _______ heat will transfer.
  e. In conduction, do the substances need to be touching each other?  Explain. 
2. Convection
 a. Draw a picture of a convection current.  Label the red and blue arrows. 
 b. What is convection?
 c. What are some other examples of convection?
 d. Convection is the primary method that heat transfers in _______ and _____.
 e. Which is denser, cold air or warm air?  Explain.
3. Radiation
  a. What effect does the sun's radiation have on the temperature of the house?
  b. What are some other examples of radiation heat transfer?
  c. Radiation can travel through empty space.  True or False?
  d. What is earth’s primary source of radiation? 

1.      Can you “beat the heat”?  How far can you go?!
2.        Which level did you make it to?  Write the information down in your notebook.

1. Read the information on Thermodynamics.
 a. Heat and Thermal Energy: When heat is increased in a system, what else is increased?
 b. Heat of Atoms: Heat is transferred on a molecular level.  Explain.
 c. Heat Movement: What causes heat to move from one system to another?
2. http://www.physics4kids.com/extras/quiz_heat_intro/index.html
        Now, take the online quiz on Thermodynamics; write the answers in your notebook.


-       1. Compare/Contrast the molecules of solids at different temperatures and the molecules of liquids at different temperatures. 
-       2. The Kinetic theory of matter states: All matter is made up of ______ and ________ that are constantly ______.

1.    In conduction, thermal energy moves from ____ to ____.
2.    Look at Table 2.2 “Heat Conductivity of Various Substances”
  a.    List in order of high conductivity (conductor) to low conductivity (insulator): wood, water, silver, air, and iron.  
  b. Rank the three states of matter in their ability to conduct heat. 
3.    Give a brief description of atmospheric convection.
4.    What are four examples of radiation?  (The website gives you two; think of two new examples.)
5.    Draw a picture of conduction, convection, and radiation.  Label them correctly.

1.      Read Convection, Conduction, and Radiation
2.      Play the Heat Review game at the bottom of the page




        1. What happens to the volume of objects when they absorb thermal energy?
        2. What happens to the volume of objects when they release thermal energy?



I. In the transfer of thermal energy, or movement of heat, how does radiation differ from conduction and convection?

J. Write down observations, thoughts, inferences on each method of heat transfer: conduction, convection, radiation.

- Play the animation for each method of heat transfer; explain what is happening in each animation.  What are examples of each?  Think of an additional two examples of your own for each.

        


Monday, March 16, 2015

Lab #6 – Heating Up and Cooling Down


Lab #6 – Heating Up and Cooling Down

Do you remember how long it took for a cup of hot chocolate to cool before you could take a sip? The hotter the chocolate, the longer it seemed to take to cool.

Problem
How does the temperature of a liquid affect how quickly it warms or cools?


Hypothesis



      
  Materials
3 beakers
3 thermometers
Stopwatch
Ice
Hot plate
100 mL Graduated Cylinder

Procedure
  1. Use the data table to record the temperature of water in three beakers every minute from 0 to 10 min.
  2. Fill one beaker with 100 mL of water. Place the beaker on a hot plate and bring the water to a boil. Carefully remove the hot beaker from the hot plate.
  3. Record the water temperature in your data table at minute 0, and then every minute for 10 min.
  4. Repeat step 3 starting with water at room temperature and ice water.
  Results
Ice Water
Time (min.)
Temperature ('F)
Temperature ('C)
0
 32’F
0’C
1


2


3


4


5


6


7


8


9


10


   
Room Temperature water
Time (min.)
Temperature ('F)
Temperature ('C)
0


1


2


3


4


5


6


7


8


9


10


  
Boiling Water
Time (min.)
Temperature ('F)
Temperature ('C)
0
212’F
100’C
1


2


3


4


5


6


7


8


9


10


  
Analysis

1.                   Graph your data for all three beakers; use only your temperatures in Fahrenheit!  Use a different color for each beaker.
2.                   Construct a fourth line graph using the data from all three data tables; there should be three lines: ice water, room temperature, and boiling water.
3.                   Infer from your results how the difference between room temperature and the initial temperature of the water affected the rate at which it heated up or cooled down. (i.e. Where was the greatest change in temperature, in the beginning (when is stopped boiling/finished melting) or as it neared room temperature?)
4.                   What happened to the temperature of the boiling water over time?
5.                   What happened to the temperature of the ice water over time? 
6.                   What happened to the temperature of the room temperature water over time?

7.                   Do you think there will be a temperature at which they would eventually meet?  If so, where do you think it will be?  If not, why not?

Conclusion

 What was your problem?
 Restate your hypothesis.  Was it right? wrong?  why or why not?
 What did you learn in this lab?
 What did you like about this lab?
 What were some challenges you had to deal with?
 What could you do next with this problem?  What other tests could you perform?
 Write down any other additional thoughts, observations, inferences, etc.