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Friday, February 13, 2015

Chapter 4 Online Exploration of Matter

A.
-Watch the video-
1.    Most matter can be found in three states:_____, ______, and ___.
2.  The law of conservation of energy states that matter can never be _______ or _________.
3.  All matter is comprised of _______.  
4.  The universe is made up of _______ and ________.
5.  Give an example of a physical change; what makes it a physical change?
6.  If you were the video's scientific creator, what would you add to show "states of matter"?  How would you explain it?  What models would you use? 

  B. 
   -Play the interactive game-
1.       Describe the arrangement and movement of the particles as you change from a solid to a liquid to a gas.
2.  Describe the arrangement and movement of the particles as you change from a gas to a liquid to a solid.
3.  Pick 2 phase transitions and make a sketch of them.  Describe whether energy is lost or gained in this transition.  


  C. 
       -Play the interactive game-
1.       What happens to the liquid when you heat it?
2.       Does the gas stay in one beaker?  Where does it go?  Why does this happen?  (Think: Energy)
3.       Cool down the gas.  What happens (Use your science vocabulary)?  Why does the liquid appear in both beakers?
4.       Heat the liquid again.  What happens to the gases when you remove the lids?  Why does this happen?
5.      Describe the motion of the atoms in each beaker.
6.  Sort the 9 items into their correct Phase of Matter; make a list in your notebook.
7.       Take the Quiz; write the answers into your notebook.

  D. 

      Watch the How Stuff Works Videos States of Matter Changes in State

1.     What happens to the molecules of liquid water when it boils?
     2.  Explain the difference between boiling and evaporation.

    3. What is the boiling point of water in 'F/'C?

    4. What is the melting point of rock?  What is the melting point of water?
    5.  What happens to water molecules when they freeze into a solid?
    6.  At the 2:00 mark, estimate the volume of the liquid in the beaker, don’t forget units!
  Play around with the animation.  Write a summary of the animation and line graph using the following terms: temperature, melting point, boiling point, solid, liquid, gas, melting, boiling, freezing, condensing.  Also, describe the movement and arrangement of molecules.

   F. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Gm6OvHUzGjM

   How Stuff Works Videos States of Matter Evaporation

     1.  A water molecule is made up of what atoms?
     2.  Draw a picture of "evaporation".
     3.  Draw a picture of a molecule of water in the vapor phase.
     4.  Through a process called ________, water vapor can turn back into a liquid.
     5.  Where do you experience evaporation in real life?  Draw a picture.

G. 
1.       Compare/Contrast the arrangement and movement of the molecules of a solid, liquid, and gas.  Make sure to use the term, “energy”.

     1. What's happening to the outside of the glass?  Describe what you see.
2.     Where are the water droplets coming from?
3.     Has this ever happened to you?  Where?  Describe the situation. 



    1. As the molecules of a solid get hotter, they vibrate ______ and ______.
    2. How do the molecules of a solid behave?
    3. When a water molecule escapes into the air, why can't you see it?
    4. If you left a glass of water in the sun, why would it evaporate faster?
    5. What happens when water vapor molecules come into contact with a cold surface?
    6. The cooler the molecules get, the _______ they move.
    7. Where does the word "condensation" come from?

1.       Play the various interactive games.


Tuesday, February 10, 2015

3rd Quarter HW

HW:       1. Science Artices: Mass, Volume, Density; Matter; Matter

2. Text pp. 122-123 “Float or Sink”
a. definitions
b. Blue Q “Communicate”
c. Applying Math #1, 2
d. p. 124 Physical Setting “Define”
e. p. 125 Self Check #3


3.  c4s1: vocabulary, bq, rc, sc #1-4

4. •C4S2 – Vocabulary, Blue Question, Reading Check, Self Check #1-4,6

LAB #5 – Measurement: Mass, Volume, and the Exploration of Density

LAB #5 – Measurement: Mass, Volume, and the Exploration of Density

Introduction
Volume is the amount of space occupied by matter - solid, liquid, or gas.
Volume is measured in units: cm3 for a solid, mL for a liquid. 

Problem
-         A: How can we find the volume of a rectangular block? 
-         B: How can we find the volume of an irregularly
           shaped object?

Hypothesis:
-

Materials
-         Various sized blocks, irregular shaped objects, ruler, graduated cylinder

Procedure A
 1) Use a metric ruler to measure the dimensions of your rectangular objects; measure to the nearest tenth (0.1) cm.
 2) Calculate the volume in cm3 of your rectangular object by multiplying the length (cm) times the width (cm) times the height (cm). V = L x W x H
 3) Record your measurements in the data table.

Results A
Data Table: Volume of rectangular objects
        
Object
length (cm)
width (cm)
height (cm)
Volume (cm3)
 A



 
 B




 C




 D



  





E





   






V = L x W x H
cm3 = (cm)(cm)(cm)

Procedure B
Use a graduated cylinder to measure the volume of an irregular shaped solid. 
1. Fill the graduated cylinder to 50 mL and record this into your notebook.  This is your initial volume.
2. Carefully drop the object in on an angle.  The object will displace water (push water up to make way for the object) which will rise to make a new volume.
3. Subtract your initial volume from the new water level.

 Results B
Final Volume --------------à                _____mL
- Initial Volume ------------à                 _____mL
=Volume of irregularly shaped object: _____mL

Analysis B
1)  What is the maximum volume you can measure with this graduated cylinder?
2)  What is the smallest volume you can measure with this graduated cylinder?
3)   Determine the value of the minor grids on the cylinder.  i.e. how many mL does each line equal?
4)   Now, check to see if you’ve measured correctly using the Volume of a sphere equation:                                                    
Volume of sphere using equation:_____cm3

 Procedure C
The mass of an object is a measure of the number of atoms in it. The basic unit of measurement for mass is the gram (g).
You are going to calculate the densities of the wood blocks using the equation, Density = Mass/Volume.  You already have the volume of wood blocks A, B, C, D, and E in the data table for Results A.  You will use a triple beam balance to find the mass of each block, and then use the equation to find their volumes.  As always, make sure to include the proper units and round to the nearest tenth. 
Results C
Density = Mass/Volume 
Object
Mass (g)
Volume (cm3)
Density
 ( g/cm3 )
A



B



C



D



E




Units:
Mass =        grams  =       g
Volume = cubic cm =     cm3 
Density = ___     hint: D=M/V
Analysis C

1)  Calculate: Combine the densities of blocks A, B, C, D and E to find the average density for the wood.  Show your work.
2)  What is the maximum mass the triple beam balance can measure?
3)  What is the minimum mass the triple beam balance can measure?
4)  What are the units for the triple beam balance?
5)  Why is it called a triple beam balance?  What does each beam measure; think in numerical terms.
6)  Why is it necessary to zero your triple beam balance before using it?


Analysis B
1) What is the maximum volume you can measure with this graduated cylinder?
2) What is the smallest volume you can measure with this graduated cylinder?
3)  Determine the value of the minor grids on the cylinder.  i.e. How many mL does each line equal?
4) Now, check to see if you’ve measured correctly using the Volume of a sphere equation:                                     
5) How can you use a graduated cylinder to measure the volume of a liquid?
6) What happens to the volume of the liquid when you drop an object into the graduated cylinder?  How can we use this to help us find the volume of the object?
7) If an object dropped into the graduated cylinder pushes up the water mark from an initial volume of 25 ml to a final volume of 51.5 ml, how many cm3 is the object?
8) Compare the two different methods of obtaining volume of a marble, how did you do?  How far off were your calculations?
9) Go back to Lab #2 – Crazy Coasters
Mass of glass marble:    _____
Volume of glass marble: _____
Density of glass marble: _____
Predict: Would you expect the glass marble to sink or float based on its density?  Why? 
10) Marble (glass), Wood blocks (wood), Water (liquid H2O): List them in order from least dense to most dense; use data from this lab to support this. 


  **Round each answer to the nearest tenth**
++Include units++

Conclusion

 What was your problem?
 Restate your hypothesis.  Was it right? wrong?  why or why not?
 What did you learn in this lab?
 What did you like about this lab?
 What were some challenges you had to deal with?
 What could you do next with this problem?  What other tests could you perform?
 Write down any other additional thoughts, observations, inferences, etc.

Monday, February 2, 2015

Density, Mass, and Volume

Density = Mass/Volume



Mass is the measure of matter. Everything has mass. The bigger of the object, the more mass it has.
Picture
We measure the mass of an object with a triple beam balance.



Volume is the amount of space occupied by an object measured in three dimensions, expressed in cubic units.


The volume of an object can be measured with a graduated cylinder. 



Density  is a measure of how much mass is contained in a given unit volume (density = mass/volume). It is usually expressed in kg/m^3. Put simply, if mass is a measure of how much 'stuff' there is in an object, density is a measure of how tightly that 'stuff' is packed together.
Diagram of four boxes showing density of molecules packed in boxes

Friday, January 30, 2015

LAB #5 – Measurement: Mass, Volume, and the Exploration of Density

LAB #5 – Measurement: Mass, Volume, and the Exploration of Density

Introduction
Volume is the amount of space occupied by matter - solid, liquid, or gas.
Volume is measured in units: cm3 for a solid, mL for a liquid. 

Problem
-         A: How can we find the volume of a rectangular block? 
-         B: How can we find the volume of an irregularly
           shaped object?

Hypothesis:
-

Materials
-         Various sized blocks, irregular shaped objects, ruler, graduated cylinder

Procedure A
 1) Use a metric ruler to measure the dimensions of your rectangular objects; measure to the nearest tenth (0.1) cm.
 2) Calculate the volume in cm3 of your rectangular object by multiplying the length (cm) times the width (cm) times the height (cm). V = L x W x H
 3) Record your measurements in the data table.

 Results A
Data Table: Volume of rectangular objects
        
Object
length (cm)
width (cm)
height (cm)
Volume (cm3)
 A



 
 B




 C




 D



  





E




V = L x W x H
cm3 = (cm)(cm)(cm)

 Procedure B
Use a graduated cylinder to measure the volume of an irregular shaped solid. 
1. Fill the graduated cylinder to 50 mL and record this into your notebook.  This is your initial volume.
2. Carefully drop the object in on an angle.  The object will displace water (push water up to make way for the object) which will rise to make a new volume.
3. Subtract your initial volume from the new water level.
 Results B
Final Volume --------------à                _____mL
- Initial Volume ------------à                 _____mL
=Volume of irregularly shaped object: _____mL

Analysis B
1)  What is the maximum volume you can measure with this graduated cylinder?
2)  What is the smallest volume you can measure with this graduated cylinder?
3)   Determine the value of the minor grids on the cylinder.  i.e. how many mL does each line equal?
4)   Now, check to see if you’ve measured correctly using the Volume of a sphere equation:                                                    
Volume of sphere using equation:_____cm3


Procedure C
The mass of an object is a measure of the number of atoms in it. The basic unit of measurement for mass is the gram (g).
You are going to calculate the densities of the wood blocks using the equation, Density = Mass/Volume.  You already have the volume of wood blocks A, B, C, D, and E in the data table for Results A.  You will use a triple beam balance to find the mass of each block, and then use the equation to find their volumes.  As always, make sure to include the proper units and round to the nearest tenth. 
Results C
Density = Mass/Volume 
Object
Mass (g)
Volume (cm3)
Density
 ( g/cm3 )
A



B



C



D



E




Units:
Mass = grams  =          g
Volume = cubic cm = cm3 
Density = ___     hint: D=M/V
Analysis C

1)  Calculate: Combine the densities of blocks A, B, C, and D and find the average density for the wood.  Show your work.
2)  What is the maximum mass the triple beam balance can measure?
3)  What is the minimum mass the triple beam balance can measure?
4)  What are the units for the triple beam balance?
5)  Why is it called a triple beam balance?  What does each beam measure; think in numerical terms.
6)  Why is it necessary to zero your triple beam balance before using it?


Analysis B
1) What is the maximum volume you can measure with this graduated cylinder?
2) What is the smallest volume you can measure with this graduated cylinder?
3)  Determine the value of the minor grids on the cylinder.  i.e. How many mL does each line equal?
4) Now, check to see if you’ve measured correctly using the Volume of a sphere equation:                                     
5) How can you use a graduated cylinder to measure the volume of a liquid?
6) What happens to the volume of the liquid when you drop an object into the graduated cylinder?  How can we use this to help us find the volume of the object?
7) If an object dropped into the graduated cylinder pushes up the water mark from an initial volume of 25 ml to a final volume of 51.5 ml, how many cm3 is the object?
8) Compare the two different methods of obtaining volume of a marble, how did you do?  How far off were your calculations?
9) Go back to Lab #2 – Crazy Coasters
Mass of glass marble:    _____
Volume of glass marble: _____
Density of glass marble: _____

++Include units++
  
Conclusion

 What was your problem?
 Restate your hypothesis.  Was it right? wrong?  why or why not?
 What did you learn in this lab?
 What did you like about this lab?
 What were some challenges you had to deal with?
 What could you do next with this problem?  What other tests could you perform?
 Write down any other additional thoughts, observations, inferences, etc.